The Return of the Prodigal Son. Meditation on each aspect of the painting afforded Nouwen with a new depth of insight into God’s love for him, which became the subject of an entire book. The picture focused Nouwen’s reflections in a profound way on the truths of Scripture. In a similar way, Catholics use icons as objects of spiritual reflection. For some, this Christian use of images is controversial.
Unlike some Protestants who reject any depictions of God in art, even in his incarnation, Catholics see the incarnation as the authorization of iconography. With Protestants, Catholics agree that God the Father cannot be captured in any form, because his form has never been revealed (CCC §1159, 2129). Christ, however, took on a human form and became the very image of God, so his portrayal as a human is fitting (§476–477, 2131). Even in the Old Testament, God used images to anticipate his saving work in Christ (§2130). Icons illustrate the truths of Scripture and help to illumine it. In this way, icons are gospel-centered (§1160, 1161). All icons, no matter what their subject matter, ultimately represent Christ, because as images they recall the incarnation (§1159). Even an icon of Mary ultimately directs attention to Jesus’ incarnation.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) describes icons this way:
The contemplation of sacred icons, united with meditation on the Word of God and the singing of liturgical hymns, enters into the harmony of the signs of celebration so that the mystery celebrated is imprinted in the heart’s memory and is then expressed in the new life of the faithful. (§1162)
|Andrei Rublev's The Trinity evokes multiple levels|
of reflection, beginning with the story of Abraham's
three visitors and culminating in the unseen Trinity
Protestants will be glad to know that Catholics are not to worship these images: “the honor paid to sacred images is a ‘respectful veneration,’ not the adoration due to God alone” (§2132). Dr. Cavadini has given us copies of several of his favorite icons to illustrate Catholic teaching. In each case, the symbolism of the artwork invites contemplation. (A book that has helped us to interpret the icons is Paul Evdokimov’s The Art of the Icon: A Theology of Beauty). Protestants are perhaps confused by icons because we take them too literally. The Trinity? You can’t depict the Trinity! Of course, the artist knows that the Trinity is ineffable, and cannot be captured in full, but what they paint is meant to inspire our reflections on the Trinity. Dr. Cavadini calls an icon a “mediating device” or a “theological summary in pictures.”
“Simeon’s Moment” hangs on our living room wall (and a smaller version in my office), a reminder that the incarnation was the fulfillment of all of God’s promises and Israel’s hopes. As Simeon cradles the baby Jesus, his eyes sparkle and his face is radiant with the knowledge that the savior of the world has come! Ancient icons, like this modern-day depiction of the incarnation, are intended cultivate and inspire our faith in Jesus.